Monday, March 17, 2014

February 14, 1864 (Sunday): Jones Makes His Exit

General Samuel Jones

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF WESTERN VIRGINIA,
Dublin, February 14, 1864.
Honorable JAMES A. SEDDON,
Secretary of War:
    SIR: I received yesterday your letter of the 11th, in reply to mine of the 4th instant. You misunderstood my meaning if you supposed I desired the President to retain me in command of this department when he thought the interest of the service would be promoted by removing me. I knew that efforts had been made by men of local influence in the department to have me removed, and I had good reason to believe they had represented that a change would be agreeable to me. I only desired that the order relieving me should not be issued under any misapprehension. I was quite sure, and so expressed myself to others, that the President wound not remove me unless he was convinced that the best interests of the service would be thereby promoted.
    I recognize to the fullest extent that it is the right and duty of the President to assign officers to duty in the way best calculated to promote the public interest. He is the proper and rightful judge in all such cases, and I have the utmost confidence in his judgment. And whilst I sincerely regret that my administration of the trust confided in me has to given more general satisfaction, I have no disposition whatever to complain because the President has determined to confide it to another, whom he thinks better adapted to secure the confidence of the people and promote the essential ends of the command.
    I sincerely hope the distinguished officer and statesman who had been selected to relieve me will succeed in the accomplishment of the end proposed.
    I may be permitted to say that I entered upon this command with reluctance, as I believe you and the President know, and my chief reason for reluctance was the general impression that not one of the many officers who had preceded me, not even General Lee, had given satisfaction to the people, and I doubted if any one who administered the affairs of the department with an eye single to the general good of the service, regardless of local interests and influence, could give satisfaction to those who assume to express the opinion and wishes of the people.
    Though it seems I have not the confidence of the people, I have the satisfaction of knowing that whilst I have contributed largely, considering the strength of my command, to re-enforce the Army of Northern Virginia, and was somewhat instrumental in checking the advance of the enemy through East Tennessee, when that department was  abandoned, my own department has experienced no serious reverse, and that my troops now occupy all the territory they occupied when I entered on the command, more than fourteen months since.
    I await the orders of the President, feeling confident that he will not assign me to any duty which I will not perform cheerfully and to the best of my ability.
    With my thanks for the very kind terms in which you have communicated to me the President's intentions, I have the honor to be, with great respect, your obedient servant, 


     SAM. JONES,
     Major-General. 

Official Records, Series I., Vol. 33, Part 1, Page 1172.

Jone was certainly gracious in his response to being reassigned in favor of Breckinridge.  But he was able to make the very interesting, for a Confederate general, boast that his troops occupied all the territory they did when he assumed his command. 

February 13, 1864 (Saturday): Mobile Threatened?

General Dabney Maury (Library of Congress)



RICHMOND, VA., February 13, 1864.
General J. E. JOHNSTON,
Dalton, Ga.:
    Have heard from Montgomery to-day. The enemy has struck across to Enterprise and is evidently moving on Mobile. What can you do toward striking at him while in motion, and before he establishes a new base? Have you received my dispatch of the 11th instant?* 


JEFFERSON DAVIS. 

+See VOL. XXXII, Part II, p. 714.  

Official Records, Series I., Vol. 52, Part 2, Page 619.

Mobile was held by 10,000 Confederate troops and nearly 100 300 guns.  The Union forces were not, at the time of this memo, moving on Mobile.  But the alarm caused, which reached the President, is a good indication of the difficulties faced by the Confederate government in holding such a vast expanse of territory against a numerically superior opponent, well supplied by the Mississippi River.

February 12, 1864 (Friday): Grant Shows Restraint




HDQRS. MILITARY DIVISION OF THE MISSISSIPPI,
Nashville, Tenn., February 12, 1864.
Major General H. W. HALLECK,
General-in-Chief, Washington:
    GENERAL: I have got Thomas ready to move with a force of about 14,000 infantry into East Tennessee to aid the forces there in expelling Longstreet from the State. He would have started on Monday next if I had not revoked the order. My reasons for doing this are these: General Foster, who is now here (or only left this morning), says that our possession of the portion of East Tennessee in perfectly secure against all danger. The condition of the people within the rebel lines cannot be improved now after loosing all they had. Longstreet, where he is, makes more secure other parts of our possessions. Our men, from scanty clothing and short rations, are not in good condition for an advance. There are but very few animals in East Tennessee in condition to move artillery or other stores. If we move against Longstreet with an overwhelming force he will simply fall back toward Virginia until he can be re-enforced or take up an impregnable position. The country being exhausted, all our supplies will have to be carried from Knoxville the whole distance advanced. We would be obliged to advance rapidly and return soon whether the object of the expedition was accomplished or not. Longstreet, could return with impunity on the heels of our returning column, at least as far down the valley as he can supply himself from the road in his rear. Schofield telegraphs to the same effect. All these seem to be good reasons for abandoning the movement and I have therefore suspended it. Now that our men are ready for an advance, however, I have directed it to be made on Dalton, and hope to get possession of that place and hold it as a step toward a spring campaign. Our troops in East Tennessee are now clothed; rations are also accumulating. When Foster left most of the troops had ten days' supplies, with 500 barrels of flour and forty days' meat in store and the quantity increasing daily.
    I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 


    U. S. GRANT,
    Major-General.

Official Records, Series I., Vol. 32, Part 2, Page 374-375.

Grant often is portrayed as crudely wielding the power of his command, winning by blunt force attacks with overwhelming numbers.  But a reading of his memos in the O.R. shows a general who displayed clear logic and an understanding of the logistics of campaigning.  Grant understood, early in 1864, how important Dalton would be to the Atlanta campaign. 

Friday, March 14, 2014

February 11, 1864 (Thursday): Jones Removed

Confederate Secretary of War James A. Seddon



WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A.,
Richmond, Va., February 11, 1864.
Major General SAM. JONES,
Commanding, &c., Dublin Depot, Va.:
    GENERAL: I have received your letter of the 4th instant, and reply to it not without sincere regret and feeling. You have been misinformed in supposing that it had been announced to the President that you wished to be relieved and that it was the purpose of the Department to announce that you were relieved at your own request. It has, however, after hesitancy and deliberation by the President, no less than myselft, been determined that the best interests of the service require a change of command in your department. Without intending disparagement to you and the zealous efforts which it is not doubted you have made to fulfill the arduous duties of your position, it has to be acknowledged that you had ceased to command the general confidence of the people, and discountent and apprehensions of hurtful nature were prevailing in regard to the security of your department. Other considerations, which it is needless to dwell upon, pointed out as probably better adapted to secure the confidence of the people and promote the essential ends of your command an officer of distinction in the Western army, who has political as well as military influences to aid his administration. General Breckinridge has accordingly been selected to relieve you, and orders to that effect will be issued in a few days, on his return form a brief visit to Dalton. As this change is made in no unkind spirit and from no harsh judgment in respect to yourself, but with regret and solely in deference to considerations of public utility, confidence is felt that it will be understood and received by you in the spirit of self-sacrifice and patriotic devotion which is demanded of us all in the prosecution of our great and vital struggle.*
     Very respectfully,


     JAMES A. SEDDON,
     Secretary of War.

* For Jones' reply see VOL. XXXIII. p. 1172. 

Official Records, Series I., Vol. 51, Part 1, Page 820.

Jones was a very well qualified officer with an undersized command and much territory to defend.  He had accomplished his primary mission, maintaining the defense of the salt works in western Virginia.  But he did not have the confidence of the people of the region.  As he would point out in his letter of reply to the President, no one preceding him in command had, either.  His letter to Davis was as polite as that of Seddon to him and is refreshing to read in light of the many self serving documents to be found in the O.R.  Jones was essentially swap commands with Breckinridge and continue in Confederate service until the war's end.

February 10, 1864 (Wednesday): Lee Upbraided

General Samuel Jones



HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF WESTERN VIRGINIA,
Dublin, February 10, 1864.
General R. E. LEE,
Commanding, &c., Orange Court-House:
    GENERAL: I have received your letter of the 2nd instant. My chief reasons for telegraphing you on the 31st ultimo of the indications of another move from the Kanawha was that I apprehended the movement might be designed to attract attention in that direction whilst General Averell or some other leader would make another raid east of but near my department, and I thought it probable you might desire to communicate the information to your officers commanding in the Valley of Virginia.
     I had no idea of asking you to detach any portion of your army permanently to aid me, but only wished you to place a small force on the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad, to be used in case of necessity, and to be returned to you when the immediate necessity for their presence should be removed. I knew my department was beyond your command, but did not think that any reason why you should not give me a little temporary aid in protecting a very long and important line, if you could do so without endangering your own command.
     If I had heretofore declined to allow any of my troops to be beyond my department my command would now be much larger than it is. Two of the infantry regiments I sent to you temporarily, as I supposed, have never been returned to me, and all the troops I carried to East Tennessee last fall to meet a pressing and, as I supposed, temporary emergency, caused by the abandonment of that section of country, are now under Lieutenant-General Longstreet's orders.
     You seem to overestimate the success which has heretofore attended General Averell's expeditions-I mean those of his expeditions into and near my department. He has made three such expeditions. On the first he was met near White Sulphur Springs, on the 26th and 27th of August last, and whipped and driven back to his base with heavy loss.
     On the second he drove our troops from Droop Mountain on the 6th of November last, but suffered so severely that he did not venture south of Greenbrier River, and he and his officers admitted, as I am informed, the expedition was a failure. On his third expedition, in December last, he succeeded in penetrating between your command and mine, and struck the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad, without coming within the limits of this department. On that raid he damaged us very slightly, and his own command suffered severely.
     I have not observed the terror with which you seem to think Averell has inspired the troops in his front. I was with them during the late raid and did not observe in them any indications of terror; on the contrary, they exhibited, amidst great difficulties and hardships, enthusiasm and eagerness to meet the enemy, and if Averell had persevered in his attempt to return by the Sweet Springs I believe his command would have been captured or destroyed.
     You suggest that an aggressive movement on my part would, by throwing the enemy on the defensive, greatly lighten my labors. It happens that the two principal forces in my front operate from different bases, several hundred miles apart, and are wholly independent of each other. They are, besides, so far separated from me, by a country devoid of forage and subsistence, that they can easily evade me and fall back beyond my reach, if they desire to do so. Neither force is dependent upon the other for protection against any attack on it, and if I attack either one the other can penetrate to this railroad with impunity, and ride from one end to the other of it, unless troops can be sent out of other departments to prevent them. I am sure that if you knew the strength of my command, and had looked at the problem before me as earnestly as I have, to see if it admitted of a solution calculated to be productive of good to our cause, you would not advise me to make an aggressive movement at this time.
     I shall lose no opportunity which promises success of striking the enemy.
     With great respect, general, your obedient servant, 


     SAM. JONES,
     Major-General. 

Official Records, Series I., Vol. 33, Part 1, Pages 1155-1156.

At this point in the war Lee did not command all Confederate forces.  Jones may have held a lesser command (in western Virginia) but he did not have to accept Lee's suggestions without question.  In this letter he upbraids Lee, politely, and points out the geographic and military realities in his department.  Jones was especially put out with Lee over the later's failure to provide him, even temporarily, much needed reinforcements.  This was especially true since Jones had provided Lee with troops which had not been returned.


February 9, 1864 (Tuesday): Hood Goes West

General John Bell Hood

SPECIAL ORDERS, ADJT. AND INSPECTOR GENERAL'S OFFICE,
Richmond, February 9, 1864.

Numbers 33.
* * * * * * *
XIV. Lieutenant General J. B. Hood will proceed without delay to Dalton, Ga., and report to General Joseph E. Johnston, commanding, for assignment to the command of an army corps.
* * * * * * * 


By command of the Secretary of War:
JOHN WITHERS,
Assistant Adjutant-General. 

Official Records, Series I., Vol. 32, Part 2, Page 699.

Hood, coming off a long recovery from wounds received at Gettysburg and Chickamauga accepted a corp command under Johnston.  Hood had served under Johnston earlier in the war in the Peninsula Campaign.  Jefferson Davis had come to know Hood during his convalesence in Richmond and admired the young officer.  The decision was not without critics, given Hood's injuries and relative youth (33).

Tuesday, March 11, 2014

February 8, 1864 (Monday): Sedgwick In Command

General John Sedgwick




HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF THE POTOMAC,
February 8, 1864- 2. 45 p. m. (Received 3. 10 p. m.)
Major- General HALLECK:
Scouts from the Shenandoah report Early encamped near Mount Jackson on Friday, at noon. His force consists of the two brigades of infantry heretofore reported and Rosser's and Imboden's cavalry.


     JOHN SEDGWICK,
     Major- General, Commanding.

Series I., Vol.33, Part 1, Page 539.

Meade was away from the army and Sedgwick was temporarily in command of the Army of the Potomac.  Early had ability, but at this point in the war the Confederacy had even fewer troops there than served under Jackson.